Monday, October 19, 2015

Antioxidants, fruits and veggies: Are they really healthy?

-  Treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality

- Vitamin E did not provide benefit in mortality compared with control treatment or significantly decrease risk of cardiovascular death or cerebrovascular accident. Beta carotene led to a small but significant increase in all-cause mortality and with a slight increase in cardiovascular death. 

- Beta carotene supplementation appeared to increase cancer incidence and cancer mortality among smokers, whereas vitamin E supplementation had no effect. Selenium supplementation might have anticarcinogenic effects in men.

- Pooled results from prospective cohort studies indicated that vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, α carotene, β carotene, β cryptoxanthin, and lycopene have little or no effect in preventing AMD.

Increased fruit and vegetable intake in the range commonly consumed is associated with a reduced risk of stroke. Our results provide strong support for the recommendations to consume more than five servings of fruit and vegetables per day, which is likely to cause a major reduction in strokes.

The risk of stroke was decreased by 11% (RR 95% CI: 0.89 [0.85 to 0.93]) for each additional portion per day of fruit, by 5% (RR: 0.95 [0.92 to 0.97]) for fruit and vegetables, and by 3% (RR: 0.97 [0.92 to 1.02]; NS) for vegetables. The association between fruit or fruit and vegetables and stroke was linear, suggesting a dose-response relationship.

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